A foal with knees in and toes out (Valgus) or "knock – kneed".
The two options in surgical treatment that can be used here are:
a) A Periosteal Elevation may be carried out on the outside of the knee, in order to make the bone grow faster on that side and assist in straightening the leg.
b) Alternatively staples may be placed on the inside of the knee in order to prevent growth on that side. In severe cases, both treatments may be used concurrently
Liz O'Flynn discusses the surgical techniques used on foal limb deformities