WITH competition and race fixtures postponed or cancelled due to the Covid-19 pandemic, many owners have made the decision to turn horses out early.
At this time of year many paddocks are still bare and fields are just starting to show spring grass coming through.
Unfortunately, there is a danger in turning horses out in these conditions. Horses can ingest large amounts of sand as they grasp at small spring grass shoots, leading to a symptom which is commonly known as sand colic. Sand colic is abdominal pain secondary to ingesting sand and or soil. All ages and breeds of horses are predisposed to sand colic.
Sand in the horse’s stomach can manifest in colic-like symptoms. It can also lead to impaired performance and generally give the horse a really poor well-being.
The most typical symptoms that indicate the horse has too much sand in the stomach are:
Diagnosis is based on tests, clinical signs, and observation of the environment.
The collection of soil particles in the horse’s stomach and large intestine not only lead to impaction but when the fine particles have been lying there for a long time, the intestinal wall will become irritated and thickened, and mucosal ulcers can form in the colon.
Sand colic can also cause bowel dysfunction and impair the absorption of nutrients.
In recent years the number of horses in Ireland has decreased, but so too has agricultural land and the concentration of horses in the same place or in the same area has increased. This may cause insufficient grass, bare paddocks due to over grazing and horses begin to pull up the grass roots, thereby consuming the soil and sand.
The goals of treating sand colic are as follows:
Supplementation with psyllium husks is routinely used in the treatment of sand colic. Psyllium seed husks are able to absorb large amounts of water. Once psyllium enters the digestive tract, it can increase in volume as much as five times or more. The resulting gelatinous substance helps support intestinal regularity to help move accumulated sand out with the stool. Psyllium is believed to have a better ability to penetrate, hydrate, and disrupt sand impactions than other laxatives.
Psyllium is believed to work by stimulating intestinal motility and by making the sand stick together, allowing the horse to pass the sand. Other laxatives such as mineral oil is generally ineffective because they tend to float over the surface of the impaction. Rehydration and over-hydration with intravenously administered fluids can help add moisture content to the lumen in the area of the impaction.
As with all cases of colic in horses, veterinarian advice should be sought immediately once symptoms become apparent.